A Guide to Koi Disease Identification

A Guide to Koi Disease Identification

No one likes having a sick pet, be it a dog, cat, horse, bunny, or other creature. 

We develop close bonds with our animal friends and care for them deeply, so seeing them ill can be quite troubling. 

It is all the more troublesome when your pet is an aquatic or another animal that cannot easily express what is wrong or even show easy to spot symptoms in some situations. 

Let’s try to make the process a little easier and go over some common koi disease identification indicators.

Symptoms: The Key to Koi Disease Identification

When looking at finding out what problems are bothering your koi or what illnesses they may have, recognizing the symptoms of common koi disorders can have a positive impact on koi disease identification timelines. 

Let’s explore the symptoms of common koi diseases and see if we can make sense of what may indicate specific illnesses.

koi disease identification

1. Aeromonas

Known as Aeromonas hydrophila, this bacterial infection causes a wide range of symptoms. These include things like:

  • Lethargy
  • Loss of appetite
  • Flashing
  • Missing scales 
  • Lesions that look like small white or red pimples

2. Carp Pox

As a form of the herpes virus that impacts fish known as Cyprinid Herpesvirus 1, Carp Pox is very contagious and easy to spread. 

Symptoms of this virus include:

  • White, blue, grey, or pink spots that look like dripping or melted wax. These spots appear on the head, fins, and shoulders most commonly but can pop up anywhere on the body of the fish

3. Costia

As a Flagellate protozoan parasite, Costia is a very serious and unfortunately common form of koi fish disease. 

This is a type of parasite known as Ichthyobodo necatrix that causes extreme discomfort in koi fish and can be tricky to diagnose due to the wide spectrum of symptomatic issues that can arise from its presence. 

These symptoms include:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Lethargy 
  • Labored breathing
  • Gasping for air
  • Clamped fins
  • Rubbing on surfaces/obvious discomfort
  • Red lesions that leak white or off-white sludge
  • Mucus seeping from the gills, especially when breathing
  • Blue-grey slime being heavily produced by the fish’s body

It is important to note that Costia is almost impossible to diagnose without a microscope. 

Under a microscope, the sample that is taken will usually contain fast-moving, bean, or kidney-shaped parasites squirming around with two flagella. 

koi disease identification

4. Dropsy

Another unfortunately common disorder, Dropsy is often seen in koi and other larger fish but can impact almost every species of aquatic animal. 

This is actually a symptom of other illnesses, usually bacterial, but can be a serious enough issue on its own that it is worth mentioning. 

Called bloater disease, pinecone disease, and pop-eye disease, Dropsy can be fatal and can be incredibly painful and uncomfortable for the fish. 

Understanding the symptoms of this disorder and taking time to educate yourself on koi disease identification in regards to Dropsy could mean your fish has a chance of surviving this issue. 

The symptoms include:

  • Bulging eyes (hence the pop-eye nickname)
  • Bloated, distended stomach
  • Gasping
  • Heavy breathing
  • Unbalanced swimming
  • Hovering at the top or bottom of the tank
  • Swimming sideways
  • Appetite loss
  • Raised scales (Hence pinecone disease nickname)

Usually, once the physical symptoms of this disorder arise, it is often too late to do much for the fish. This is a very serious disorder and if you can catch the first minor symptoms that include

5. Chilodonella

Another disorder in which koi disease identification early on is key for survival, Chilodonella is a protozoan parasite that can have serious health consequences if left undetected. 

Known officially as Lernaea elegans, the symptoms of this disorder are:

  • Clamped fins
  • Rubbing on surfaces
  • Gasping
  • Heavy breathing
  • Surfacing for air continually/hovering at the surface of the tank
  • General extreme oxygen seeking (hovering air stones of even filter areas)
  • Flashing
  • Cloudy skin due to increased mucus production
  • Appetite and weight loss, usually rapid

This is another disorder that requires a microscope for diagnosis. 

This parasite usually looks heart-shaped and moves with Cilla, which looks like hairs.

Koi Fish

6. Columnaris

A bacterial infection with a lot of different nicknames, Columnaris is often called cottonmouth disease, tail rot, fin rot, saddleback disease, or by its official name of Flavobacterium columnare. 

This is one of the more common koi fish disorders that can spread rapidly. Symptoms include:

  • Torn or raggedy appearing tail or fins
  • Ulcers or sores all over the body
  • Banding around the body and lesions on the dorsal region
  • Milky patches on the body
  • Cotton-like, discolored mucus around mouth, eyes, head, and dorsal region. 
  • Heavy breathing
  • Rapid, shallow breath
  • Gasping
  • Lethargy
  • Frequent surfacing and oxygen seeking
  • Floating or laying near the bottom constantly
  • Discolored or brown gills
  • Appetite and weight loss, usually rapid

7. Anchor Worms

An easy to spot parasite, anchor worms can usually be resolved fairly easily. 

They are a crustacean parasite known as Lernaea elegans that show symptoms in the form of:

  • Visible, thread-like extensions from the body that extends from the anchor-shaped head, usually greenish or white in color
  • Flashing
  • Red, painful lesions where the parasite is located
  • Breathing trouble (both heavy or fast and shallow)
  • Lethargy
  • Loss of weight and appetite

8. Fish Lice

Another parasite, this crustacean ectoparasite known as Argulus foliaceus is easy to see with the naked eye and relatively easy to treat. 

The symptoms include:

  • Tiny, algae colored creatures that look like isopods or horseshoe crabs
  • Rubbing on surfaces
  • Lethargy
  • Flashing and discomfort
  • Loss of appetite
  • Red lesions at parasite attachment points, sometimes with lost scales
koi disease identification

9. Ich

A prime example of why koi disease identification is so important, ich is one of the most well known aquatic health disorders around. 

A protozoan parasite that is known as Ichthyophthirius multifilis, this parasite requires a microscope for diagnosis and can be tricky due to its quick spreading nature. 

It is seen under a microscope as a horseshoe or U-shaped center with a round outer body and creates the symptoms:

  • Flashing and discomfort
  • Appetite and weight loss
  • Lethargy 
  • Identifying white spots that look like grains of rice (these are actually holes bored by the parasite)

Prevention and Treatment

While treatment can do a lot to help return your fish to its normal state of health, prevention is a much more secure path.

Fortunately, with education in koi disease identification, you have a fighting chance of saving your fishy friend and treating their illness in a timely manner.