It is well known that koi fish are, as a whole, a very hardy species.
They are bred from wild carp, so they inherited the tough as nails qualities of their lineage quite well, resulting in a fish species that is both beautiful from its selective breeding and incredibly durable. These fish can truly handle a lot and still be quite healthy!
Still, sometimes even the toughest fish get sick. Let’s learn about treating one of the most common koi diseases, pine-cone disease, and figure out how to prevent it!
What Is Pine-Cone Disease?
Pine-Cone disease is not actually a disease, for starters.
It is actually a set of symptoms that indicate other health issues, some of which can be very serious and even potentially debilitating or life-threatening.
Pine-cone disease is caused by typically three different disorders, including tumors or other growths impeding normal bodily functions, an infection known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or a secondary bacterial infection causing internal bleeding. It can also be caused by other things like fluid retention and parasitic presence but generally is linked to the three main points that are discussed above.
Characteristics of the disorder include bulging, almost extended eyes. Your fish’s scales will also stand out from their body, giving them an appearance similar to that of a pine-cone.
Often called dropsy, the disorders that cause pine-cone disease are very dangerous and potentially extremely contagious so preventing or treating the illnesses as quickly as possible is key in preventing a larger scale problem.
How To Treat Pine-Cone Disease
To treat dropsy, you must first isolate and quarantine the affected koi.
This is for the protection of the other fish in your pond or enclosure, as it will prevent further spreading of whatever root cause is triggering the pine-cone disease reaction.
Additionally, it will give your sick koi space to recover and relax, allowing it a greater chance of surviving the disorder and fully healing without the potential injuries and stress that could come from being sick in a full pond.
Once your koi is quarantined, next you should try to raise the water temperature slightly. This will help to kill off the bacteria, as they prefer the cooler temperatures of the average koi pond. It also hinders the spread of the disease.
Do not make the water incredibly hot, instead making an effort to keep the temperature within the acceptable range for the average koi fish.
You should also increase the oxygen levels of the quarantine area, since pine-cone disease can make it harder for your koi to breathe and increase the toxins in their blood due to the impact of the swelling and retention on the kidneys and liver, which can be exacerbated by the presence of the initial bacterial infection that frequently triggers dropsy in the first place.
Lastly, you will want to start a good regime of antibacterial, antibiotic treatments for your koi. To do this, you should choose between either an injectable or an edible substance. Your vet can help you choose which option is right for your fish.
Once you have decided on a treatment vehicle and method, you simply ensure your fish gets the proper dose at the right time each day and you should be all set. It is a lot of work but is worth it if your fish is able to make a full recovery and begin feeling better again!
Preventing Pine-Cone Disease
Preventing pine-cone disease is perhaps the best way to deal with it.
Obviously, if your fish already has it you have to treat the condition first, but once it makes its recovery, you should make conscious efforts to prevent it from recurring or happening to your other fish. This is actually a rather simple measure!
First, monitor your water quality. If your water quality is low or the pH is off, bacteria can grow much more rapidly. Having a good filtration and oxygenation system to prevent waste buildup and stagnant water is key in ensuring your pond is a healthy ecosystem that supports fish life easily.
Additionally, you should have a testing kit on hand to make sure your koi fish always have the right parameters and that you can check in on your fish whenever you like to tweak things as needed.
Is Pine-Cone Disease Deadly?
Unfortunately, once your fish has reached the point that you can physically see the qualities that are categorized as a pine-cone disease symptom system, it is often too late to do much.
Many vets actually recommend euthanizing the fish humanely because the damage to their bodies is often far too severe, especially to their liver and kidneys. Their eyes may also be impeded and they can experience brain damage and various toxicities that can cause major health issues later in life, including making them more susceptible to other infections.
If you caught the disorder early enough, your fish does have a chance of recovery, but if it seems they are too far gone, it may be better to either have it euthanized at the vet’s office or euthanize it at home humanely.
Many recommend using clove oil and cold temperatures to lull the fish into a peaceful slumber, at which point it will pass away, but even this should be done with a vet’s supervision, if possible, to ensure it is successful and comfortable for the koi.
Even the best koi keepers sometimes have sudden illnesses occur, so do not beat yourself up over it. Accidents happen and all you can do is make an effort to prevent future dropsy issues.
A Difficult Situation
Having a sick fish is hard, especially when it is something like pine-cone disease that can indicate a much larger issue occurring internally.
No matter the outcome, giving your koi the best life possible is the goal of any keeper and if you have done all that you can to provide that, be kind to yourself and make an effort to ensure there are no parameters within your control contributing to the illness.
Making changes as needed is key in keeping happy, healthy koi fish.